After being a member of the EU for 43 years, Great Britain decided in a referendum on 23 June 2016 to leave the Union.
On 29 March 2017, the UK formally notified the European Council of its intention to leave the EU, and on 19 June 2017, the EU and the UK began negotiations on the UK’s withdrawal from the EU. Union (Brexit).
Between 2017 and 2019, the EU and the UK negotiated the terms of Brexit. This process included conducting negotiations on a withdrawal agreementincluding the conditions regarding transition period enables citizens and businesses to adapt to changes and to define the objectives to be set for the future relationship between the EU and the UK.
The Brexit negotiations ended when the EU and the UK both ratified and signed the agreement on the UK’s withdrawal from the EU.
After the UK left the EU on 31 January 2020 at midnight (CET), the UK Withdrawal Agreement entered into force on 1eh February 2020.
Which aspects are covered by the withdrawal agreement?
The Withdrawal Agreement has been approved and signed by the EU and Great Britain. It sets the conditions for one The UK’s orderly exit from the EU in accordance with Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union.
The Withdrawal Agreement is a key agreement governing the relationship between the EU and the UK. It covers several aspects including:
- common provisions for the understanding of the agreement
- citizens’ rights in the EU and Great Britain
- separation problems
- a transition period from 1eh February to 31 December 2020
- a financial settlement
- a Protocol on Gibraltar, aimed at facilitating cooperation between Spain and the United Kingdom, including with regard to the implementation of citizens’ rights under the Withdrawal Agreement.
Implementing the Withdrawal Agreement requires action at EU and Member State level, as well as action in the UK.
Protocol on Ireland and Northern Ireland
The agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU contains a protocol on Ireland and Northern Ireland. This protocol allowsavoid the establishment of a physical border on the island of Ireland after the official withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the Union.
The EU and the UK have agreed this protocol as a stable and lasting solution to protect the economy of the whole island as well as the Good Friday Agreement (or Belfast Agreement) in all its components and to preserve the integrity of the EU. market.
After extensive discussions with the British government and contacts with stakeholders in Northern Ireland, the European Commission has proposed measures aimed at finding a common solution to the practical difficulties brought about by the implementation of the Protocol in the area. These initiatives focus on and will contribute to food, plant and animal health, customs, medicine and collaboration with stakeholders solve remaining supply problems in Ireland, as well as in Cyprus and Malta.
In March 2021, the EU launched a infringement procedure against the United Kingdom Government for non-compliance with important elements of the protocol. This procedure was suspended in September 2021 to create the necessary space to search for common solutions.
In June 2022, the UK government introduced a bill that provided further evidence of protocol failure. The EU responded by deciding to continue its infringement proceedings. The EU has also consistently called on the UK government to engage seriously and constructively in the search for common solutions under the Protocol.
Transfer in 2018 of UK-headquartered agencies
Under the Withdrawal Agreement, the two EU agencies previously headquartered in the UK are theEuropean Medicines Agency andThe European Banking Authorityhad to be transferred.
Following a process where EU countries were able to submit an offer to host these agencies, subject to an assessment by the European Commission and a subsequent vote by the EU-27, amsterdam has been chosen as the new headquarters of the European Medicines Agency and Paris as the new headquarters for European banking supervision.
The two regulations establishing these two agencies had to be amended to take account of their transfer.